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Choosing a technical model for A2A interoperability: Lessons from Tanzania and Pakistan

In 2014, the GSMA engaged with mobile money service providers (MMSPs) in eight markets to foster collaboration and establish domestic account-to-account (A2A) interoperability. This paper focuses on Tanzania and Pakistan – two of the three markets – where account to account interoperability was implemented in 2014. With very different regulatory environments and commercial models, providers in each country chose a technical model best suited to their own market context and aspirations.


The GSMA represents the interests of mobile operators worldwide, uniting more than 750 operators with over 350 companies in the broader mobile ecosystem, including handset and device makers, software companies, equipment providers and internet companies, as well as organisations in adjacent industry sectors. The GSMA also produces the industry-leading MWC events held annually in Barcelona, Los Angeles and Shanghai, as well as the Mobile 360 Series of regional conferences.

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