This case study from IFC examines Tanzania’s journey to-date in establishing rules to govern MFS interoperability by tracing the contextual factors, motivations, and processes that contributed to the agreement reached in September 2014 to interconnect according to an agreed industry set of rules for wallet-to-wallet transfers (supported with bilateral agreements between operators). It builds on interviews conducted with all stakeholders3 involved in interoperability discussions between December 2012 and November 2014. From these interviews, common themes have emerged that suggest important factors contributing to Tanzania’s experience. This case study does not describe in detail the actual solution, but rather provides background on the industry engagement process. It includes high level information on the solution as it relates to the choice of interparty agreements, business model and clearing and settlement architecture.